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'Afoxé' refers to a particular genre of carnival organisation in Salvador, Bahia. Afoxés originated in 19th century Bahia and today are found elsewhere in Brazil as well. According to the Bahian historian Antonio Riserio, the term 'afoxé' derives from the Yoruban 'a-fo-xé', which means "to make something happen" and perhaps also "spell".

Roughly, an 'afoxé', is a kind of delegation sent by a Candomblé (Afrobrazilian religious cult) community to represent it during street carnival, where it typically sings and dances to the music of Candomblé rituals without performing the rituals themselves. In a way, it is ritualistic music and dance with the ritual taken out, which is why afoxés are also called 'street candomblé' (candomblé de rua).

Afoxés are deeply influenced by West African Yoruba religion, language and music. In spite of being discriminated for decades, afoxés have played a key role in the cultural indvidualization of Bahian popular carnival. Well known early afoxés are the 'Embaixada da África' (African Embassy) and the 'Pândegos da África' (African Follies) from the 1880s.